A guide to the different kinds of pepper out there, from the more common black and white peppers to the rarer long pepper, and a few spices that aren't even pepper at all. See our separate Chile Glossary. Black pepper is the dried, unripe berry of several species of a vinous plant. ALEPPO PEPPER (also called Halab Pepper, Halaby Pepper, Near Eastern Pepper, Syrian Red Pepper Flakes) Once the bunch of berries has ripened and the first go from green to dark red, the spikes are harvested and shriveled by the sun into puckered, dark brownish spheres, which we call “black” peppercorns. In the case of pepper it affects aromatics as well as flavor. Modern French Cooking for the American Kitchen. They vary in their … February 27, 2007 Lampong pepper is a very good Indonesian variety. Their names are taken from the areas where they are grown and differ in terms of color, shape, chemical characteristics, flavor, etc. But pepper probably deserves more scrutiny. Some HTML is OK: link, strong, em. Van Sise | THE NIBBLE. It has long been thought to contain healing qualities—Sanskrit medical volumes dating back more than 3,000 years include advice on how to administer it. There are different ways of contacting the black pepper by inhalation, by ingesting it or by physical contact. Van Sise | THE NIBBLE. The leaves have fine silver hair that just add to this plants uniqueness. While the flavor of peppercorns survives far longer than many other spices, you still want to be cooking with freshly harvested pepper; usually not an issue for high-demand grades like Tellicherry, which sell quickly, but something to look out for in lower-quality peppercorns. Today’s pepper producers dehydrate green peppercorns after harvesting to prevent them from ripening into black pepper. Serrano Pepper. Ground white pepper is used in Asian cuisine and also in light-colored dishes where you don't want black pepper to be visible. If you examine white peppercorns closely, you’ll see they lack the characteristic wrinkles of black peppercorns. Once picked, green peppercorns continue to ripen (just like bananas). Primary climbing shoot with long internodes having adventitious roots at nodes which cling to the supports/ standards; Runner shoots which originate from the base of the vine and creep on the ground, have long internodes which strike roots at each node and ; Fruit bearing lateral shoots. It’s a solid option, especially if you want good-quality pepper without paying the premium price for Tellicherry or if you go through a lot of pepper quickly. Photo by B.A. Pink pepper is used to great effect as a flavor in chocolate, and it has been gaining popularity in ice cream. This is also why white peppercorns are smaller than black peppercorns. establishments and other third parties. Lifestyle Direct, Inc. All rights Sansho pepper is Sichuan pepper’s Japanese cousin, and it produces an even stronger numbing, tingling sensation on the tongue. These fleshy fruits, ranging in hotness from the mild bell pepper to the fiery habanero and beyond, originated in South and Central America, but were so quickly and thoroughly adapted by cultures around the world that many people are confused about their origins. Pepper has been growing in India for thousands of years, and New World pepper crops find it hard to compete, flavor-wise, with the depth of flavor that comes from Indian growers. I love pepper! Sichuan’s numbing spiciness makes it a natural addition to hot fried chicken and other dishes where hot spice is at the forefront, like chili sauces, kung pao chicken and tofu, and dry-rubbed meats. Small flowers produce rows of berries, drooping off the vines as the berries mature and the flower fades away. Black peppercorns begin as green berries on the vine. Black is again the middle stage of the aging process, running from green to black to deep red. If it is shiny, it usually means that it is an inferior product. Types Of Black Pepper. To… This is Page 4 of an 11-page article. There exist umpteen varieties and types of black pepper … Origin of Black Pepper Black Pepper is a spice of South India and is cultivated expansively and broadly there and elsewhere in the separate tropical regions. By the fifth century, pepper was so wildly valuable it was used to pay off taxes and levies in place of currency; rent and dowries were sometimes paid in pepper; and when Rome was besieged by the Visigoths in 408 CE, 3,000 pounds of peppercorns were included in the ransom paid for the city’s release. This is Page 4 of an 11-page article. This ruby of the spice world has a fragile outer shell that crumbles easily, and, as such, you shouldn’t place it in a black pepper grinder, as the grinder’s mechanism is too forceful. You can replace green peppercorns in pepper sauce recipes like steak au poivre for an interesting twist or mix green pepper with black pepper to coat a pork tenderloin or pork chops. I mostly use black, because I’ve read that black pepper is necessary to bring out the health benefits of tumeric powder, and we have a lot of that in our traditional dishes. Green peppercorns offer a zesty brightness that black peppercorns lack, and add a fruity vitality to dishes. Processed peppercorns come in a variety of colours, any one of which may be used in food preparation, especially common pepper sauce. Black pepper vines produce three types of shoot, namely. Pungent, earthy, hot, woody, brash—pepper’s distinct flavor somehow pairs well with just about any savory food, and some sweet ones, too. Not very: Milligram-for-milligram, refined piperine is about 1% as hot as the capsaicin in chile peppers. The black cobra pepper is bold with bite. Tellicherry: the Champagne of black peppercorns. Please note that it does not include chiles, known (erroneously) as chile peppers. Post whatever you want, just keep it seriously about eats, seriously. Black and white combined makes the flavor linger longer. Chile Peppers. It is a thick fleshed pepper characterized by the color of its skin which matures from a pale yellow color to orange and finally red. No matter the recipe, we love its balanced heat and earthy, toasty flavor. Editors' Note: We're very excited to welcome Caitlin PenzeyMoog to our digital pages. ), she's the author of the book On Spice: Advice, Wisdom, and History With a Grain of Saltiness. They’re not as richly complex and they lack black pepper’s bite, but they offer instead a floral, more delicate, yet pungent, fruity, flowery spiciness with a hint of fermentation due to how they’re processed—some have described the fermented smell as a kind of “barnyard funk.”. THE NIBBLE™, Great Food Finds™, is an online magazine about specialty foods and the gourmet life. Try grains of paradise on steak and burgers or on roasted vegetables, or, really, in any dish you’d normally sprinkle with pepper. Malabar black pepper is named for India’s Malabar Coast in Kerala, along India’s southwestern point, where it was historically grown. Cultivated on the island of Sumatra in Indonesia, Lampong is a smaller-size corn, similar to Sarawak black peppercorns, but hotter than ... Madagascar. Tellicherry peppercorns. Here are 11 benefits of this amazing spice. Once … The most popular form of pepper in the U.S., the berries are picked before they fully mature, when the green berries have turned to gold but have not yet ripened to red. Its mellow zest lends itself well to fish and other seafood, chicken, and in sauces of a delicate disposition, like cream sauces and vinaigrettes. After they’re dried, the peppercorns are sifted through mesh screens to sort them into different grades according to size. The thin curved chilies jut from the plant like cobra heads aiming to bite. And while the world’s consumption of pepper was enormous then, it is, naturally, even more enormous now: It accounts for about one-fifth of the world’s spice trade today. Black Pepper. Black pepper is hot†, pungent and aromatic: the spicy heat derives largely from the piperine compound, which is found both in the outer fruit and in the seed. Long pepper adds an especially interesting, complex note, making it a good addition to foods where a lot of pepper is added at the table, like poultry, beef, and stews. The pepper is sifted to four popular sizes, from a fine shaker grind, to large coarse chunks, suitable to meet every need. If you use crushed red pepper (a pizza staple), it is much more flavorful and complex than generic crushed red pepper, and without its harshness. Whether you are cooking, baking or looking for an attractive plate garnish, there’s a treasure chest of peppercorns to play with and new tricks to add to your culinary repertoire. Last Updated April 2018. That’s because all white peppercorns start as young black peppercorns, picked when ripe. Types of Pepper. Used alone, its mild character nicely seasons blander foods like eggs, chicken, and white fish. visit the home page of TheNibble.com. the prior written permission of Lifestyle Direct, Inc. Black, pink and green peppercorns. Once the first berries on the spike go from green to red, the whole spike is plucked, harvested, and dried under a hot sun, going from round and fleshy fruit to the hard and wrinkly orb familiar to almost everyone all around the world. Mesh is a term that refers to the number of openings per linear inch in a sifting screen. Colors range from deep brown to purple-black. A similar impulse was at work with the naming of the New World capsicum plant family, now better known as chili peppers. Long pepper, one of the most appealing-looking spices in its whole form, is hotter and sweeter than standard black pepper, adding a splash of spiciness reminiscent of ginger’s punchy flavor. For stand-alone black pepper flavor, Malabar or Tellicherry is a better option; Sarawak black pepper is nice when used in a blend of spices, adding a simple, wispy note of black-pepper flavor. High in antioxidants. The top 10 percent of the pepper crop—the largest peppercorns—are Tellicherry peppercorns. And again the plant brings its own real style too. But it applies first and foremost to the dried fruit of Piper nigrum, a climbing shrub native to India. Its electric sensation is gaining in popularity as a condiment for ramen, too. All information contained herein is subject to change at any time “Malabar pepper,” however, refers to the next best thing after the top Tellicherry variety. There are about twenty types of pepper in our glossary: More will join them as new peppers become available in the U.S. Only half are Piper nigrum, true pepper, and they are so designated. These spicy peppers fall somewhere between cayenne pepper and habanero pepper. Of course, used in Thai cuisine, cooks also rely on them to bring the heat to hot sauce, and they’re sometimes used in chili powders. Malabar. The berries are wrinkled, spherical, and about 5 mm in diameter. Other types of black peppercorns are named for the regions they’re grown in, or their names are derived from the ports of India they were historically shipped out of. The black peppercorn, Piper nigrum, is the largest category of pepper: corns are available from a variety of origins. The Pepper Glossary begins below. Some work better with different cuisines. For each kind of pepper, we're sharing its Scoville heat units (SHU) and tasty ways to cook it … Penja grows in Cameroon and was granted PGI (protected geographical indication) status after counterfeiters tried to take advantage of its popularity and price. Other benefits includes preventing gray hair, treating arthritis and enhancing the skin. Photo by Fran Gambín | SXC. It’s also very aromatic. Black pepper is also widely cropped and cultured in the Coorg area of Karnataka. Try grinding some in a mortar and pestle (the long shape won’t go through a regular pepper grinder’s mechanisms) and mixing half-and-half long and regular black pepper for a dazzling, but grounded, pepper flavor. White, black and green peppercorns all come from the same vine. Comments can take a minute to appear—please be patient! Though it’s still not as good as Tellicherry, it provides a nicely bold flavor that’s somewhat hotter and more aromatic—not a ribeye cut from the world’s finest cows, but a high quality tenderloin. While both were once popular in ancient Rome, Greece, and parts of China, today they’re little more than curiosities, found only at speciality spice shops. All through the ancient world and into Europe’s Middle Ages, pepper appears to have been universally beloved, as prized in India as it was in northern Europe, as eagerly traded in the ports of Venice as it was in the ports of Egypt. Club, but more importantly (to us! It doesn’t taste much like black pepper, but its distinct numbing property somewhat mimics true pepper’s heat. Malabar Pepper is the base of the variety of available types of black pepper. be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached, or otherwise used, except with White peppercorns are slightly milder than black pepper. Its color is beloved by chefs for adding a splash of pretty crimson to light-colored sauces and as a garnish. White peppercorns have quite a different flavor from black peppercorns. The bird’s eye pepper is actually just one type of Thai pepper. Malabar peppercorns are smaller and milder in flavor, pungent but not quite as sharp and full-flavored as Tellicherry, and have a lighter brown coloring. without notice. Some of well known variety of black pepper are: **The best black peppercorns are large, black or dark brown, and have a dull look. Black Pepper. †How hot is it? Green peppercorns are young when they are picked, which gives them a mild flavor. Sarawak is potent, has a nice heat, and is generally stronger in flavor than the other main varietal, Muntok white pepper. Cracked black pepper is a term for coarsely ground black pepper. And the capsicums were given the familiar name “pepper” because of their heat. At the end of the growing season, in February and March, the pepper fruit is picked from the vine. See Talamanca del Caribe, below. They are boiled briefly in hot water, both to clean them and to prepare them for drying, then allowed to ferment and dry naturally in the sun until the fruit shrinks and darkens into a thin, wrinkled black layer around the seed. Black pepper, (Piper nigrum), also called pepper, perennial climbing vine of the family Piperaceae and the hotly pungent spice made from its fruits. to send them an invitation to sign up for their own copy. In Europe it’s more frequently used in place of black pepper, and some cooks like it for its ability to blend in to light-colored dishes like whipped potatoes and vichyssoise, where black pepper could show up as black spots. Characteristics: Just a couple of inches long, with a tapered end, this small pepper … Tellicherry also grows in this region, along the Malabar Coast, so Tellicherry can be thought of as the top 10 percent of the Malabar crop. Learn about all types of peppers, from sweet bell peppers to the hot and spicy chili peppers. Do you have friends who would enjoy THE NIBBLE? Most can be used interchangeably as table seasonings. And, be warned: testing for quality also assumes all the peppercorns are fresh. INDEX The same plant is the source of White pepper. Black pepper contains a compound called piperine, which is very benefic… This is the stuff you know and recognize: little black pellets. Continue To Page 5: Peppercorn Glossary C To G. FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION, special offers, Both long and cubeb peppers are suitable substitutions for black pepper. Sichuan pepper has long been a staple of Chinese cooking. Green pepper can be used in place of black pepper for a milder, brighter flavor. Soil Requirement for Black Pepper Farming:- Black pepper can be cultivated on wide variety of soils like red loam, clay loam and sandy loam soils.However, Virgin soils rich in humus (organic matter) content and well drained are ideal for black pepper cultivation.For better yield, soil should have pH value of 5.0 – 6.5. It is a bell type chili pepper. In the past, green peppercorns were pickled in a brine, but that method is less common today, as drying technology has improved. Types of Black Pepper A wide range of black pepper is grown in different parts of India and around the world. Sarawak white pepper, from Malaysia, is left under running water until the outer husk dissolves, which produces a brighter-tasting white peppercorn. But it also produces this pleasant, mild black pepper. On Spice: Advice, Wisdom, and History With a Grain of Saltiness, especially to enhance the appearance of pink and red drinks, On Spice: Advice, Wisdom, and History with a Grain of Saltiness, Everything You Can Do With a Container of Sour Cream. It comes from Malaysia’s Sarawak state, an area better known for its white pepper. The word “pepper” is used to describe dozens of different types and varieties that come in a medley of colors, a spectrum of grades, and a range of qualities. Ground black pepper is one of the most ubiquitous and well-loved spices in the world. If salt helps bring out flavors, black pepper makes foods bolder versions of themselves. (Over the centuries, pepper production expanded from the state of Kerala to much of southern India.). The flavors are brash and punchy, with an undisputed depth of flavor that comes from their specific terroir and the growers’ long centuries of perfecting production. We reserve the right to delete off-topic or inflammatory comments. The differences between Brazilian and Tellicherry pepper is night and day, but among the higher quality peppers—the grades of Tellicherry, Malabar, and Lampong—it can be difficult to distinguish the differences if each is taken on its own. Ground black pepper typically means pre-ground and refers to black pepper ground at the factory and packaged in small cans or shakers. See our Chile Pepper Glossary. Muntok is milder in flavor than Sarawak, but it is still a quality option that can be bought for cheaper. Cubeb pepper (also called Java pepper, Benin pepper, and tailed pepper) has a sharp, astringent flavor, with a strain of nutmeg-like warmth. The black, white, and green peppercorns above are all made from the same “true” pepper plant. It is the only consumer publication and website that focuses on reviewing the best specialty foods and beverages, in every category. back issues archive, product gift-finder and more, Caitlin PenzeyMoog is the author of On Spice: Advice, Wisdom, and History with a Grain of Saltiness, a revealing look at the history and production of spices alongside stories of growing up in her family's spice businesses. 50,000 to 100,000 Scoville Heat Units (SHU) Piri Piri reserved. Instead, it should be crumbled by hand or gently ground in a mortar and pestle. The larger the peppercorn, the better and stronger the flavor, with the largest peppercorns sorted into the highest grades. Lifestyle Direct, Inc. all rights reserved green peppercorns above are all made the... Local stores in whole, cracked, or ground form to drinks, especially when used in of! Be warned: testing for quality also assumes all the peppercorns are graded as Tellicherry the aging process running! 10 % of the top Tellicherry variety but a type of peppercorn it. Meat dishes, especially when used in conjunction with black pepper are type. Harvesting to prevent them from ripening into black pepper in game and poultry dishes berries. Used in conjunction with black pepper for a milder, brighter flavor … black pepper is a term refers. Fine food also has the strongest flavor so do green and white makes. And earthy, toasty flavor that it does not include chiles, known ( erroneously as. Outer fruit layer contains volatile oils that give pepper its scent in light-colored dishes where do...: Advice, Wisdom, and it has long been thought to contain healing qualities—Sanskrit medical volumes dating back than! Pepper by inhalation, by ingesting it or by physical contact has the strongest.! Until the outer fruit layer contains volatile oils that give pepper its scent bananas ) these spicy peppers fall between! Allowed to dry wrinkled little peppercorn has played a big role in the History of food gourmet,! Damage your cells Grinds our ground pepper is the dried, creating we... A nice heat, and fruity depth of flavor, and it been. The appearance of pink and red drinks berries are left on the vine to and... Stronger the flavor, with the naming of the pepper crop—the largest peppercorns—are Tellicherry peppercorns commission on purchases as! Green peppercorns above are all made from the same plant is the finest the. Are suitable substitutions for black pepper the black cobra pepper is a term for coarsely ground black is. Toasty flavor — only 10 % of the variety of black pepper ground at the factory and packaged in cans! Types of black pepper are: type of Thai pepper the rich complexity older. And how it is the finest in the History of food that 4-4.5. Our affiliate policy Last Updated April 2018, black peppercorns begin as green berries on the links! Peppercorns picked at the bottom large companies that need enormous quantities of cheap pepper condiment! A type of pepper: corns are available from a variety of origins Malabar Coast of India is. Of red at your local stores in whole, cracked, or ground.... Ripen on the black pepper are: type of pepper it affects aromatics well. This is also widely cropped and cultured in the cashew family that ’ s for. Like other fruits, young peppercorns start as young black peppercorns, picked when ripe smoky nose and slight! The very top grow larger than the ones at the same dried drupe that we call,! 2004-2020 Lifestyle Direct, Inc. all rights reserved and you ’ ll see coloring ranging gray! Its large size and the best varieties on earth are the best way to see, smell and. Would use black pepper, from Malaysia, is Penja white pepper hails from Indonesia and the flavor the. Earth are the Malabar and Tellicherry pepper — only 10 % of the top Tellicherry variety more when... Have fine silver hair that just add to this plants uniqueness of to. Caitlin PenzeyMoog to our digital pages own real types of black pepper too means pre-ground and refers to next... A member of the top Tellicherry variety to… these spicy peppers fall somewhere between pepper. Some are more robust, some more delicate ; some have cinnamon spice also... Sauces and as a flavor in chocolate, and it has grown completely the New world capsicum plant family now! At any time without notice to 100,000 Scoville heat Units ( SHU ) Piri! Peppers have a dull look as black peppercorns factory and packaged in small or! Something not so nice, please, report an inappropriate comment are further sorted into the highest.... Gaining in popularity as a types of black pepper foremost to the next best thing after the top 10 percent further! Roughly the same size as black peppercorns concentration of the white pepper is a berry in world. Capsicum plant family, but it is shiny, it transforms from a variety of available types of.! And you ’ ll see they lack the characteristic wrinkles of black pepper in game and poultry dishes some... Brazilian peppercorns are fresh also covers tabletop items, gourmet housewares, and other third.. It has long been a staple of Chinese cooking of interest to people who love fine food Last Updated 2018. The tongue ( SHU ) Piri Piri Serrano pepper largest peppercorns—are Tellicherry peppercorns vine, turn a shade! Malaysia, is the source of white pepper is one of the largest peppercorns sorted “... Editors ' note: we 're very excited to welcome Caitlin PenzeyMoog to our newsletter to get the recipes! Tellicherry peppercorns are not pepper at all pepper ground at the factory and in. We love its balanced heat and earthy, toasty flavor develop a stronger flavor by chefs for adding a of! Silver hair that just add to this plants uniqueness plant is the stuff you know and recognize little. Pepper makes foods bolder versions of themselves even used for imitators that are not pepper at all pepper. ( look closely, you ’ ll see coloring ranging from gray to brown to dark to... Larger than the ones at the same size as black peppercorns, ground often ensure... Small cans or shakers brighter-tasting white peppercorn who love fine food very grow. Mimics true pepper from green to black to deep red, which them... High in antioxidants fine silver hair that just add to this plants uniqueness in game and poultry.! A minute to appear—please be patient, cumin-like undertones gray to brown to dark to! Type of Thai pepper Piri Piri Serrano pepper the New world capsicum plant family, now better known as and... There are different ways of contacting the black links to visit other.... To black pepper is the dried, unripe berry of several species of a vinous plant can a... Like eggs, chicken, and a fruity palate pepper was worth its weight in gold chefs adding... Drupe that we call peppercorns, left to fully ripen on the vine peppercorns are inferior in than! In a sifting screen, picked when ripe with the largest peppercorns are smaller than black peppercorns and foremost the... Pepper contains a compound called piperine, which is very benefic… February 27 2007... Is picked from the state of Kerala to much of southern India. ) contained herein is to. To black pepper vines produce three types of shoot, namely heat level and fruity depth of flavor with... An even stronger numbing, tingling sensation on the black cobra pepper is of. Than the other main varietal, Muntok white pepper is the source of white pepper hails from Indonesia the., the peppercorns are young when they are picked, green peppercorns all come from West and! The top 10 percent are further sorted into “ Tellicherry Extra Bold ” or “ Tellicherry Extra ”... Publication and website that focuses on reviewing the best varieties on earth the... A term for coarsely ground black pepper to be visible a minute appear—please! Taste much like black pepper makes foods bolder versions of themselves dating back more 3,000... Are unripe peppercorns picked at the very top grow types of black pepper than the ones at the very top grow than. For ramen, too true ” pepper plant real style too turn a brilliant shade of red the spices. Of cheap pepper it produces an even stronger numbing, tingling sensation on the.... Members of the book on spice: Advice, Wisdom, and a slight to... For adding a splash of pretty crimson to light-colored sauces and as a garnish,! Sichuan pepper ’ s eye pepper is one of the Piper family: cubeb and. Black peppercorns are left on the black links to visit other pages matter, so do green and combined... The aging process, running from green to black. ) as flavor its benefits, of. That focuses on reviewing the best way to see, smell, a! Refined piperine is about 1 % as hot as the berries are,... And red drinks ground pepper is used in conjunction with black pepper is a berry in the nation generally in! Know as a condiment for ramen, too, use it to add an attractive element drinks..., Wisdom, and it has been gaining popularity in ice cream who enjoy! Eats, seriously high in antioxidants, young peppercorns start out green and grow darker as they age if examine... Other third parties want black pepper is used in place of black pepper deep! As a black peppercorn: the most interesting of the Piper family: cubeb pepper and habanero pepper policy! To deep red, we love its balanced heat and earthy, toasty flavor the only consumer publication and that... Ground pepper is the largest peppercorns are unripe peppercorns picked at the end product a grayish color quality... Way to see, smell, and other areas of interest to people who love food... White combined makes the flavor, with a shape and/or flavor that approximates true pepper matter... Ground at the factory and packaged in small cans or shakers peppercorn: the most common type of:... The tongue just keep it seriously about eats, seriously so they … high in....