Fluid accumulation results in extensive bullous detachment. The metabolic acidosis associated with metabolism of EG is corrected by administration of sodium bicarbonate. Incoordination, excessive urination, excessive thirst, vomiting, and lethargy are amongst the first signs to appear. The prognosis varies inversely with the amount of time that elapses between ingestion and initiation of treatment. Also, if this test kit is run too late, it may test falsely negative; in other words, since peak levels of ethylene glycol are detected in the first 1- 6 hours after ingestion of the toxin, it is important that this test kit be used early in the course of suspected poisonings. The fluorescein in the fluid fluoresces when viewed under ultraviolet light. Ethylene glycol (EG) is a well known toxic compound, the assumption of which can be fatal to pet animals as well as to humans. 1,2 It is nonvolatile at ambient temperatures and has a molecular weight of 62.07 g/mol. Once absorption has occurred, excretion of EG is increased by fluid therapy designed to correct dehydration and increase urine production. Cat, Ethylen glycol, Ethylen glycol toxicity, Pathological findings, Poisoning. Limited information is available on the pathological features of EG poisoning in pet animals, with special emphasis on cats. A urinalysis may also confirm ethylene glycol poisoning and underlying kidney damage by the presence of dilute urine containing blood, protein, cellular casts (plugs of cells which have taken the shape of dying tubules in the kidneys), and calcium oxalate crystals (which are seen with ethylene glycol poisoning). As little as one eighth of a teaspoon per pound of body weight in a cat of undiluted antifreeze can result in fatality. Most intoxications are associated with ingestion of antifreeze, which is typically 95% EG. Key words: ethylene glycol, intoxication, cat. Ethylene glycol, the toxic component of antifreeze, causes severe kidney damage. Emergency Situations, Treatment, Pet Services. Ethylene glycol has a very narrow margin of safety – which means only a tiny amount can result in severe poisoning. Monohydrate calcium oxalate crystals (clear, 6-sided prisms) are more common than dihydrate calcium oxalate crystals (maltese cross or envelope-shaped). About. Do not wait; time is of the essence and immediate treatment is essential! Activated charcoal is not likely to reduce absorption of EG from the GI tract. Epistaxis and hemoglobinuria have also been seen in cattle that have ingested large doses of EG. Calcium oxalate crystals form within the lumina of tubules as water is reabsorbed from the glomerular filtrate and the pH decreases (smaller numbers of calcium oxalate crystals may also be observed in the adventitia of blood vessel walls throughout the body). This damage can be identified in a serum biochemistry profile by increases in the levels of creatinine and BUN (blood urea nitrogen) that are normally removed from the blood by the kidneys. To prevent metabolism of EG, the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase is decreased by direct inactivation or by competitive inhibition. Reproductive Toxicity. Toxicity: Ethylene glycol is the main toxic ingredient found in most antifreeze products, usually at a concentration of 95-97%.It is an extremely dangerous toxin. The gastrointestinal tract is the primary route of exposure. Glycolic acid and oxalate are the metabolites thought to be most responsible for acute tubular necrosis associated with EG ingestion. Cats may be attracted to ethylene glycol by its sweet taste. Ethylene glycol tastes sweet, which is why some animals are attracted to it. (1)Istituto Zoopro lattico Sperimentale del Lazio e della Toscana "M. Aleandri", Rome, Italy. As CNS depression increases in severity, dogs and cats drink less; however, the osmotic diuresis continues and results in dehydration. Treatment is aimed at decreasing absorption of ingested EG, increasing excretion of unmetabolized EG, preventing metabolism of EG, and correcting the metabolic acidosis that occurs with EG metabolism. Cats like drinking from ditches, puddles and ponds which means they’re prone to drinking water contaminated with antifreeze. Pet Poison Helpline is not directly affiliated with LifeLearn. Ethylene glycol causes renal damage when toxic metabolites reach the _____. The trusted provider of veterinary information since 1955. The best way to confirm ethylene glycol poisoning is by measuring the blood concentration of ethylene glycol. Toxicokinetics. Ethylene glycol (antifreeze): Antifreeze remains one of the most common causes of poisoning in small animals. Diagnosis is often difficult because the nonspecific multisystemic signs may appear similar to other types of CNS disease or trauma, gastroenteritis, pancreatitis, ketoacidotic diabetes mellitus, and acute renal failure due to renal ischemia or other nephrotoxicants. Last full review/revision May 2013 | Content last modified May 2013, © 2020 Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA), © 2020 Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA, Overview of Health-Management Interaction: Small Animals, Monitoring the Critically Ill Animal Using The Rule of 20. Treatment should include correction of fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base disorders and, if possible, induction of diuresis. Ethylene glycol exposure can be extremely dangerous, with significant morbidity and mortality if … One-half of this dose should be given IV slowly to prevent overdose, and plasma bicarbonate concentrations should be monitored every 4–6 hr. ©Copyright VCA Hospitals all rights reserved. This hyperphosphatemia resolves before the onset of EG-induced acute renal failure and azotemia, then recurs when the animal becomes azotemic. [emedicine.com] Pathophysiology There is limited data regarding DEG and most information is derived from published experimental studies. Cats do not taste ‘sweetness’ in the same way we do, but still find drinking ethylene glycol attractive. Poisoning from drained vehicle radiator fluid. Symptoms of ethanol poisoning may also be similar to early stages of antifreeze (ethylene glycol) poisoning. Ethylene glycol (EG) intoxication is one of the most common causes of acute kidney injury (AKI) and the second most common intoxication encountered in pet animals. A test to determine the blood levels can be done at some veterinary diagnostic laboratories or human hospitals. Clinical signs are dose- and time-dependent and can be divided into those caused by unmetabolized EG and those caused by its toxic metabolites. Urine fluorescence has been used as a qualitative adjunctive test in suspected EG ingestions in people and may be of value in veterinary medicine. The toxic component of antifreeze is called ethylene glycol. Further absorption of EG is prevented by induction of emesis or gastric lavage (or both) within 1–2 hr of ingestion, although the rapidity of EG absorption from the GI tract suggests these procedures may not be beneficial. –Pathophysiology: Initially a direct effect of ethylene glycol, which in low doses causes euphoria and in high doses causes CNS depression. Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA (known as MSD outside of the US and Canada) is a global healthcare leader working to help the world be well. Pigs and cattle often develop renal and perirenal edema. A teaspoon of ethylene glycol could kill your cat. Ethylene glycol, a sweet-tasting, odorless liquid, is the active ingredient in antifreeze. The formula 0.3 − (0.5 × kg body wt) × (24 − plasma bicarbonate) is used to determine the dose, in mEq of bicarbonate. Ethylene glycol itself is a colourless fluid although the solutions it is commonly found in are often coloured in an attempt to prevent accidental ingestion. Younger animals may be more susceptible. When in doubt, if you suspect your pet has ingested ethylene glycol, immediate veterinary attention is imperative as the prognosis is very poor once clinical signs have developed. Again, because the antidote (fomepizole) is only effective if given within 3 hours of ingestion, it is imperative that you see a veterinarian immediately. Ethylene glycol is metabolized in the animal’s body to several extremely toxic chemicals that are responsible for its potentially lethal effects. 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