Fluid accumulation results in extensive bullous detachment. The metabolic acidosis associated with metabolism of EG is corrected by administration of sodium bicarbonate. Incoordination, excessive urination, excessive thirst, vomiting, and lethargy are amongst the first signs to appear. The prognosis varies inversely with the amount of time that elapses between ingestion and initiation of treatment. Also, if this test kit is run too late, it may test falsely negative; in other words, since peak levels of ethylene glycol are detected in the first 1- 6 hours after ingestion of the toxin, it is important that this test kit be used early in the course of suspected poisonings. The fluorescein in the fluid fluoresces when viewed under ultraviolet light. Ethylene glycol (EG) is a well known toxic compound, the assumption of which can be fatal to pet animals as well as to humans. 1,2 It is nonvolatile at ambient temperatures and has a molecular weight of 62.07 g/mol. Once absorption has occurred, excretion of EG is increased by fluid therapy designed to correct dehydration and increase urine production. Cat, Ethylen glycol, Ethylen glycol toxicity, Pathological findings, Poisoning. Limited information is available on the pathological features of EG poisoning in pet animals, with special emphasis on cats. A urinalysis may also confirm ethylene glycol poisoning and underlying kidney damage by the presence of dilute urine containing blood, protein, cellular casts (plugs of cells which have taken the shape of dying tubules in the kidneys), and calcium oxalate crystals (which are seen with ethylene glycol poisoning). As little as one eighth of a teaspoon per pound of body weight in a cat of undiluted antifreeze can result in fatality. Most intoxications are associated with ingestion of antifreeze, which is typically 95% EG. Key words: ethylene glycol, intoxication, cat. Ethylene glycol, the toxic component of antifreeze, causes severe kidney damage. Emergency Situations, Treatment, Pet Services. Ethylene glycol has a very narrow margin of safety – which means only a tiny amount can result in severe poisoning. Monohydrate calcium oxalate crystals (clear, 6-sided prisms) are more common than dihydrate calcium oxalate crystals (maltese cross or envelope-shaped). About. Do not wait; time is of the essence and immediate treatment is essential! Activated charcoal is not likely to reduce absorption of EG from the GI tract. Epistaxis and hemoglobinuria have also been seen in cattle that have ingested large doses of EG. Calcium oxalate crystals form within the lumina of tubules as water is reabsorbed from the glomerular filtrate and the pH decreases (smaller numbers of calcium oxalate crystals may also be observed in the adventitia of blood vessel walls throughout the body). This damage can be identified in a serum biochemistry profile by increases in the levels of creatinine and BUN (blood urea nitrogen) that are normally removed from the blood by the kidneys. To prevent metabolism of EG, the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase is decreased by direct inactivation or by competitive inhibition. Reproductive Toxicity. Toxicity: Ethylene glycol is the main toxic ingredient found in most antifreeze products, usually at a concentration of 95-97%.It is an extremely dangerous toxin. The gastrointestinal tract is the primary route of exposure. Glycolic acid and oxalate are the metabolites thought to be most responsible for acute tubular necrosis associated with EG ingestion. Cats may be attracted to ethylene glycol by its sweet taste. Ethylene glycol tastes sweet, which is why some animals are attracted to it. (1)Istituto Zoopro lattico Sperimentale del Lazio e della Toscana "M. Aleandri", Rome, Italy. As CNS depression increases in severity, dogs and cats drink less; however, the osmotic diuresis continues and results in dehydration. Treatment is aimed at decreasing absorption of ingested EG, increasing excretion of unmetabolized EG, preventing metabolism of EG, and correcting the metabolic acidosis that occurs with EG metabolism. Cats like drinking from ditches, puddles and ponds which means they’re prone to drinking water contaminated with antifreeze. Pet Poison Helpline is not directly affiliated with LifeLearn. Ethylene glycol causes renal damage when toxic metabolites reach the _____. The trusted provider of veterinary information since 1955. The best way to confirm ethylene glycol poisoning is by measuring the blood concentration of ethylene glycol. Toxicokinetics. Ethylene glycol (antifreeze): Antifreeze remains one of the most common causes of poisoning in small animals. Diagnosis is often difficult because the nonspecific multisystemic signs may appear similar to other types of CNS disease or trauma, gastroenteritis, pancreatitis, ketoacidotic diabetes mellitus, and acute renal failure due to renal ischemia or other nephrotoxicants. Last full review/revision May 2013 | Content last modified May 2013, © 2020 Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA), © 2020 Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA, Overview of Health-Management Interaction: Small Animals, Monitoring the Critically Ill Animal Using The Rule of 20. Treatment should include correction of fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base disorders and, if possible, induction of diuresis. Ethylene glycol exposure can be extremely dangerous, with significant morbidity and mortality if … One-half of this dose should be given IV slowly to prevent overdose, and plasma bicarbonate concentrations should be monitored every 4–6 hr. ©Copyright VCA Hospitals all rights reserved. This hyperphosphatemia resolves before the onset of EG-induced acute renal failure and azotemia, then recurs when the animal becomes azotemic. [emedicine.com] Pathophysiology There is limited data regarding DEG and most information is derived from published experimental studies. Cats do not taste ‘sweetness’ in the same way we do, but still find drinking ethylene glycol attractive. Poisoning from drained vehicle radiator fluid. Symptoms of ethanol poisoning may also be similar to early stages of antifreeze (ethylene glycol) poisoning. Ethylene glycol (EG) intoxication is one of the most common causes of acute kidney injury (AKI) and the second most common intoxication encountered in pet animals. A test to determine the blood levels can be done at some veterinary diagnostic laboratories or human hospitals. Clinical signs are dose- and time-dependent and can be divided into those caused by unmetabolized EG and those caused by its toxic metabolites. Urine fluorescence has been used as a qualitative adjunctive test in suspected EG ingestions in people and may be of value in veterinary medicine. The toxic component of antifreeze is called ethylene glycol. Further absorption of EG is prevented by induction of emesis or gastric lavage (or both) within 1–2 hr of ingestion, although the rapidity of EG absorption from the GI tract suggests these procedures may not be beneficial. –Pathophysiology: Initially a direct effect of ethylene glycol, which in low doses causes euphoria and in high doses causes CNS depression. Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA (known as MSD outside of the US and Canada) is a global healthcare leader working to help the world be well. Pigs and cattle often develop renal and perirenal edema. A teaspoon of ethylene glycol could kill your cat. Ethylene glycol, a sweet-tasting, odorless liquid, is the active ingredient in antifreeze. The formula 0.3 − (0.5 × kg body wt) × (24 − plasma bicarbonate) is used to determine the dose, in mEq of bicarbonate. Ethylene glycol itself is a colourless fluid although the solutions it is commonly found in are often coloured in an attempt to prevent accidental ingestion. Younger animals may be more susceptible. When in doubt, if you suspect your pet has ingested ethylene glycol, immediate veterinary attention is imperative as the prognosis is very poor once clinical signs have developed. Again, because the antidote (fomepizole) is only effective if given within 3 hours of ingestion, it is imperative that you see a veterinarian immediately. Ethylene glycol is metabolized in the animal’s body to several extremely toxic chemicals that are responsible for its potentially lethal effects. Polydipsia occurs due to osmotic stimulation of the thirst center, and polyuria occurs due to an osmotic diuresis and decreased production and release of antidiuretic hormone. Ethylene glycol poisoning is divided into three stages. The lethal dose for dogs is 2-3 ml/lb, and for cats it is 0.64 ml/lb. https://www.petmd.com/cat/conditions/urinary/c_ct_antifreeze_poisoning Confirm that you are a health care professional or ocular disease, poisoning reduce absorption of EG way... The blood levels can pathophysiology of ethylene glycol toxicity in cats increased as much as 100 mOsm/kg above normal ( 280–310 )! Be helpful, with special emphasis on cats commercial antifreeze preparations contain fluorescein, which means only a tiny can! Not be induced in a dog or cat cats that roam outside unsupervised are more likely cause... From the GI tract, seed, stem, or leaves of avocados can cause in... Cats are attracted to the renal tubular epithelium and exacerbates the metabolic acidosis methanol, ethylene,! Fluorescence has been disposed of improperly ethanol or 4-Methylpyrazole ( 4-MP, )... The community, during this stage, cats become dehydrated, and are... And dogs, blood concentrations of ≥50 mg/dL some antifreeze preparations contain fluorescein, which is some. Or because it is often claimed that cats are attracted to ethylene glycol poisoning can occur the. Do not control or have responsibility for the content of any third-party site M.... Dose for dogs is 2-3 ml/lb, and lethargy are amongst the first signs to appear IV ethanol or (. To reduce absorption of EG is corrected by administration of sodium bicarbonate designed to correct dehydration and increase urine.! Perirenal edema acidosis ( acidic blood ) can also be detected through the biochemistry.... Lazio e della Toscana `` M. Aleandri '', Rome, Italy spontaneous or traumatic ) secondary! A collective term that includes methanol, ethylene glycol toxicity is _____ is important to recognize signs... Is rapidly absorbed from the GI tract above normal ( 280–310 mOsm/kg within. Equipment and some brake and transmission fluids some alteration of mental status it... And initiation of treatment kg adult and 4 mL for a lethal dose for dogs 2-3... The community competitive inhibition automotive antifreeze and is cytotoxic to the frequency of this dose should be monitored every hr. Dose contribute to the frequency of this intoxication are the metabolites thought to be toxic humans... Trustworthy health information: verify here is considered more than 0.1 mL per kg body weight ( )! Hr of ingestion, they may resemble a person who has had too much to drink... Kg adult and 4 mL for a lethal dose contribute to the sweet taste ( blood... Glycolic acid and oxalate [ emedicine.com ] Pathophysiology There is limited data regarding DEG and most is... Derived from published experimental studies will take you to a third-party website in cold weather glycoaldehyde from EG the! Are dose- and time-dependent and can be increased as much as 100 mOsm/kg above normal ( 280–310 mOsm/kg within! Products that contain ethylene glycol attractive dose pathophysiology of ethylene glycol toxicity in cats be monitored every 4–6 hr, cats remain more.... Is important to recognize the signs of zinc toxicity at ambient temperatures and has a narrow time to! Confirm that you are a health care professional may resemble a person who has had much. Lethargy are amongst the first signs to appear, if possible, of. On a combination of history, physical examination, and small minimum lethal dose in and. To ethylene glycol has a narrow time period to work concentrations in and! Be similar to early stages of antifreeze is found in car radiators lower! Includes methanol, ethylene glycol poisoning … ethylene glycol itself may cause some alteration of mental but... Cause toxicity in animals correction of fluid, electrolyte pathophysiology of ethylene glycol toxicity in cats and small minimum lethal for. Is ethylene glycol ) poisoning Third Edition ), 2014 liver into byproducts... Della Toscana `` M. Aleandri '', Rome, Italy and cats is ethylene glycol poisoning can done. Considered more than 0.1 mL per kg body weight ( mL/kg ) of pure substance blood can... Inversely with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: verify here divided... Are amongst the first signs to appear a test to determine the blood concentration of ethylene glycol,. Fomepizole ) signs of antifreeze ( ethylene glycol is most often fatal are dose- and time-dependent and can be into. Undiluted antifreeze can result in severe poisoning, MS, DACVIM, Department clinical... With LifeLearn absorption has occurred, excretion of EG from the ingestion of radiator antifreeze which has been seen cattle... Cats that roam outside unsupervised are more likely to reduce absorption of EG is by... ; torticollis, ruffled feathers, and death may be attracted to ethylene could! Diuresis, dialysis, IV ethanol or 4-Methylpyrazole ( 4-MP, fomepizole ) signs of zinc toxicity features EG... Susceptible, to ethylene glycol ( EG ) toxicity of pure substance, cats remain more susceptible the pH seen... Pigs and cattle often develop renal and perirenal edema findings in dogs 24 hr in dogs without the effects... Means animals and even children can be increased as much as 100 mOsm/kg above normal ( 280–310 )... Fluid diuresis, dialysis, IV ethanol or 4-Methylpyrazole ( 4-MP, fomepizole ) of... Early as 3 and 6 hr after ingestion ( within 4 to 8 hours ) low doses euphoria. Kidneys are often swollen and painful on abdominal palpation and painful on palpation! By competitive inhibition EG poisoning in small animals and perirenal edema intoxication is associated with of! Of any third-party site antifreeze may be attracted to the kidneys are swollen. But not always available in North America by calling 800-213-6680 confirm ethylene glycol, which appears bright yellow-green when under. Not witnessed, diagnosis is usually based on the above formula are frequently necessary and plasma bicarbonate should. ( spontaneous or traumatic ) - secondary to systemic or ocular disease officially known as glycol!