Inhalation Toxicology, 23 (10), 555-592. (2011) Health effects of particulate air pollution: a review of epidemiological evidence. Follow tips for keeping particle levels low indoors. The effects of inhaling particulate matter that have been widely studied in humans and animals include asthma, lung cancer, respiratory diseases, cardiovascular disease, premature delivery, birth defects, low birth weight, and premature death. Over the past decades, research has focused on the question which particles may be more toxic than others, but it remains difficult to disentangle the effects of different types of particles fromeach other or from other pollutants. Adverse Health Effects Eye, nose, throat and lung irritation, coughing, sneezing, runny nose and shortness of breath are some common short term effects of PM2.5 exposure. The AQI translates air quality data into numbers and colors that help people understand when to take action to protect their health. Over the past decades, research has focused on the question which particles may be more toxic than others, but it remains difficult to disentangle the effects of different types of particles fromeach other or from other pollutants. Vehicular traffic has a significant influence on PM 2.5 levels in urban areas; followed by combustion activities (biomass, industrial, and waste burning) and road dust. Rückerl R. et al. Epidemiological studies rely primarily on spatial variation of the air pollutants to estimate the associations between exposure to air pollutants and health effects. carbon is an air pollutant which both affects health and contributes to climate change (2). Objective: Exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) is estimated to cause millions of premature deaths annually. Airborne PM is a mixture of chemicals; its solid components are commonly classified by size, ranging from several micrometers (PM10) to a few nanometers (PM0.1). Results: Estimates for daily PM exposure are provided. Methods: A review of available literature. PM is a common proxy indicator for air pollution. Despite extensive epidemiological research, there is currently no evidence of a threshold below which exposure to particulate matter does not cause any health effects. In addition to particle size, another specific physical, chemical, and biological characteristics can influence harmful health effects. Commonly used indicators describing PM that are relevant to … The aim of this study is to review and compare available measurements of the most commonly reported indoor particulate matter (PM) fractions in office environments and the methodological approaches that were used for the assessment of air quality and associated health effects. If you have lung disease, you may not be able to breathe as deeply or as easily as you normally can, and you may experience coughing, chest discomfort, wheezing, shortness of breath, and unusual fatigue during periods … Those with a diameter of 10 microns or less (PM10) are inhalable into the lungs and can induce adverse health effects. Wood Smoke Health Effects: Increased Risk. Therefore, PM2.5 comprises a portion of PM10. It consists of a complex mixture of solid and liquid particles of organic and inorganic substances suspended in the air. © 2020 Health Effects Institute.All rights reserved. Both coarse and fine particles are of health concern because they can penetrate into the sensitive regions of the respiratory tract. Health effects. The IARC and WHO designate particulates a Group 1 carcinogen. Chronic exposure can cause worsening of lung function especially for patients with asthma (pulmonary) and heart (cardiovascular) diseases. Fine particles are more dangerous than coarse particles. Particles are defined by their diameter for air quality regulatory purposes. Particulate matter is responsible for harmful effects on health, even in the absence of other air pollutants. This work conveys known routes of exposure to PM and resultant health effects. COMEAP statement on the evidence for health effects associated with exposure to non-exhaust particulate matter from road transport Ref: GW-1550 PDF , 195KB , … Authors; Authors and affiliations; Jane Q. Koenig; Chapter. Known mechanisms by which insoluble particles are transported and removed from the body are discussed. The WG adopted a recommendation to use fine particulate matter, (PM2.5), as the indicator for health effects induced by particulate pollution such as increased risk of mortality in Europe, to supplement the commonly used PM10 (which includes fine and coarse particles). (2015). However, normal persons can also experience temporary problems. 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